Santa’s Elves Make Training Stick (December 2018)

December 6, 2018 by

2018 has been an eventful year for Santa, Mrs. Claus, the Elves, and the Reindeer with so much to learn in preparation for Christmas!  Rudolph and the reindeers have been busy training on newer, safer methods of transporting packages while the elves have been learning how to make brighter, more colorful toys and electronics for children across the world.

Santa promised to keep up with change and provide boys and girls the best, brightest, and most up to date toys, electronics, and gadgets every year.  But the toys the boys and girls started asking for had changed, especially those electronic toys.    The elves – and Rudolph – needed continuing education and learning throughout the year.  Instead of taking the elves off the production line, Rudolph decided to use e-learning.

But Santa’s goal to create brighter, more colorful toys and electronics may be at risk for this year’s Christmas. Chief Elf Bernard and the elves have been in the workshop trying to complete e-learning on creating toys for Christmas 2018. The elves have told Bernard they just simply don’t like the e-learning. They say it is impersonal and they can’t ask questions.  And the elves can’t focus on the e-learning because they’re distracted by their work machines and tools, emails, telephone calls, reindeer dropping in, and calendars full of meetings and other commitments.

•  Elf Bernard immediately set up computers away from the elves’ work areas (but still closeby) where they could focus on their learning.

•   Mrs. Claus came by with copies of Making Learning Stick, and Making eLearning Stick and offered to help.  She had used techniques from the books to learn how to make new cookie recipes.

•   Mrs. Claus showed Elf Bernard how to revise the eLearning content and curriculum using the Checklist for Better Training Transfer (Resource:  Making eLearning Stick, pg. 26).

•   She also showed him someTechniques to Integrate Education (TIEs) to reinforce the training and how to modify his e-learning  to integrate TIEs (Resources:   Making Learning Stick, chap. 2)

•   Elf Bernard decided to use these TIEs:

(1) Before Training:  Action Learning, Boss Briefing, and Training Buddies

(2) During Training: Mind Sweep, Strategy Link, Virtual Tutor, Threaded Discussion

(3) After Training: Action Plans, Boss Debriefing, and Use It or Lose It Checklist

The elves were happy with their new learning environment and most importantly, they are now hard at work making the latest and greatest toys and electronics for Santa to deliver to good little girls and boys everywhere on Christmas Day!

And everyone will live happily ever after – that is, until the next major change or shift in learning.

Happy Holidays from the Make Training Stick!® Team!

Until next time…

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Making Training Stick with a Growth Mindset

October 24, 2018 by

Sticky Note

October 18, 2018

Mindsets can have a significant impact on learning transfer and application.  Some thought leaders have even termed “Mindset” as the new psychology of success.  A mindset is a form of Positive Psychology that involves an attitude that that helps a person handle situations.  Facilitators and designers with a learning and application Mindset, a Make Training Stick Mindset, can influence participants expectations of learning as well as the learning and application itself.  Facilitators with this type of Mindset embrace challenges, persist in the face of setbacks, see effort as the path to mastery, learn from criticism, and find lessons and inspiration in others.  By modeling these behaviors, facilitators encourage participants to go on the journey of learning new content by helping them focus on the experience of learning and to increase willingness to try new things.  Facilitators can build a positive climate for learning and create a nurturing Mindset with trust, commitment, care, preparation, and effort.

Here are some suggestions to foster a Make Training Stick Mindset:

  • In the training design, facilitators should include learning goals, content relevance, practice and feedback, behavior modeling, error-based examples, and self-management strategies.
  • Before class, send “can do” encouraging messages with positive descriptors along with enrollment details, such as “as one of our talented employees, I know will find this training is thought-provoking. Plan positive “can do” messages during the training delivery.
  • Throughout the beginning of class, make an active effort to use positive descriptors for class members individually and/or as a group, using phrases such as “you are a bright group of trainees”…“brilliant idea”…”I can see we have a class of excellent performers.” This seems so simple but it can make a big impact.
  • Post positive written messages in electronic or face-to-face classrooms that describe a desired end result. These types of positive statements are also called Affirmations and can be used for work-related behavior change.  Affirmations are described in detail in the Making Training Stick Field Guide (on Amazon).
  • Consider sending a series of post-training emails with messages to reinforce a positive Mindset. Everyone gets a lot of emails these days but most people will be pleased to receive a positive, affirming note especially when it doesn’t require them to reply.

More information on these and other evidence-based elements for effective learning and transfer, are in Barbara Carnes’ book, Making Learning Stick (on Amazon).

Until next time…

Barbara

new doc 2018-04-13 21.53.22_1

 

Self-Awareness and Making Training Stick

August 16, 2018 by

Greetings!  In the May Sticky Note Dr. Barbara Carnes told you that I, Dr. Tammy Means, would take a role in authoring new content. In June we introduced our Training Transfer Technologies Poll (if you haven’t responded, please click on the link) and now we are excited to introduce the August Sticky Note on Self Awareness and Making Training Stick.  A lack of self-awareness inhibits learning transfer.  I recently conducted a workshop on Emotional Intelligence with a special focus on Self Awareness. Participants in the workshop focused on practical ways to become more self-aware…

And I also began to explore practical ways facilitators can encourage and increase self-awareness in participants (to increase learning transfer).  Participants who are self-aware are able to understand their own emotions and recognize feelings (angry, sad, scared, happy)—thus, helping manage emotions and feelings needed to improve and makes room for learning and application.  The goal is to create better self-knowledge, to make adjustments and improvements, and to accommodate for weaknesses.  This involves the facilitator taking on the coaching role to guide participants to have them come to their own understandings and knowledge about themselves.

Facilitators can support competencies of Self Awareness in these ways:

  •  Self-Regard (being aware of, understanding and accepting ourselves).  Foster a culture of praise and constructive feedback to participants.  This encourages a coaching culture within the learning environment.
  • Emotional Self-Awareness (being aware of and understanding our emotions). Allow participants to express their emotions in positive ways by using situational examples throughout trainings.  Facilitators can also use personality tests within trainings.
  • Assertiveness (expressing our feelings and ourselves nondestructively).  Set a professional tone within the learning environment to demonstrate how participants are expected to express themselves.
  • Independence (being self-reliant and free of emotional dependency on others).  Allow time in class for self-reflection.  This allows participants to evaluate themselves.
  • Self-Actualization (setting and achieving goals to actualize our potential). Set aside time for participants to reflect on their learning and to set goals.  This encourages individuals to focus on their strengths and embrace weaknesses or failures.

Self Awareness is closely linked to Barbara’s previous Sticky Note on Mindfulness as well as the Training Transfer Process Model in Barbara’s book Making Learning Stick (available through Amazon) which includes a number of Learner Characteristics  research has shown support learning transfer.  While self-awareness is not specifically listed in the model, those listed that are closely linked to self-awareness are:  self-efficacy, openness to experience, and career planning.

Until next time…

new doc 2018-04-13 21.53.22_1Barbara

Announcement and Information about Intentions

April 23, 2018 by

Greetings!  After many years writing about training transfer and “stickiness”, I’m excited to introduce Dr. Tammy Means who will be playing a prominent role here in the future and will be authoring future content –  Sticky Notes, white papers, and a new book.  Tammy has a solid background in learning and development with special emphasis on technical training.  Read more about her on www.MakeTrainingStick.com

Now, consider this: 

Many end-of-training evaluations ask participants to respond to a statement like this:  “I plan to (or will be able to) apply this training to my job”.   Have you ever wondered if this is an accurate prediction that the training will stick?  Technically this is referred to as intention to transfer.   

Several research studies have been conducted that compare intent to transfer with actual use of skills on the job.  In each case there was a fairly high connection between intention to transfer and the actual transfer.  But —

– Don’t people often tell us what we want to hear (or what they think we want to hear)?

– How many people have kept their new year’s resolutions?  (How many of us remember what they were?)

– Aren’t people’s perceptions of their own behavior often different from what other people see?

The answer is yes, people often tell us what they think we want to hear but this “socially desirable response” (SDR) bias has really only been studied on personal habits such as healthy food choices and substance abuse.  There is no evidence that SDR plays a part in assessing workplace learning or intention to use it.  Yes, people’s perceptions of their own behavior are sometimes different from what others see, but just because learning doesn’t show up in observable behavior doesn’t mean it hasn’t stuck, particularly with leadership and soft skills training where behavior changes may be subtle, and observed only by one or two individuals.

So – is it useful at the end of the class to ask your trainees how they intend to use what they have just learned in training?  Definitely.  While a few people may not accurately indicate what they intend to do to apply what they have learned, multiple research studies have found that for the majority of trainees, particularly in soft skills training, those who report their intention to transfer specific skills, actually do it. 

In addition to asking about intent to use in end-of-class evaluations, here are some more ideas:

  •  Incorporate it with an action planning activity.  (See this prior Sticky Note for a closer look at action planning and Making Training Stick).  Have participants develop their action plan, then a reflection activity on intent to do it.
  • Contact   participants 2-3 weeks after training and ask:  “What have you done as a consequence of your participation in the training?”   and “…. if you have not started yet, what do you intend to do?”   Note:  In one study, the trainer sent the follow-up email to each participant’s managing director, who then sent out the email.  They got a very high response rate.
  • Repeat the above email 6 weeks – 3 months post-training.  Ask the same questions and compare the responses.
  • Large number of trainees?  Develop a short survey with multiple choice responses – no more than 5-8 questions.  Each question would be a key learning point from the training, with response choices 1-5, and would have two parts:  to what extent are you using this skill/learning point?  If you haven’t used it yet, to what extend do you intend to use it?
  • If it’s not possible to “boil down” to 5-8 specific questions, send more than one questionnaire.  Just because the learning content is grouped into one learning event doesn’t mean the feedback and evaluation on it has to be.

Remember, when trainees tell you they intend to transfer what they have learned, they usually do it.  How cool is that?! 

Until next time…

Barbara 

Letter to Self – Easy Closing Activity that Makes Training Stick

September 15, 2017 by

 

 

One of the first closing activities I used was called a “letter to myself.”   At the end of training, participants were asked to reflect on what they learned and how they were going to apply it, and to write a letter to themselves, complete with self-addressing an envelope.   Then I picked up the envelopes, stashed them away for a few weeks, and mailed them back to their authors.  I got a lot of positive feedback from people.  One time when I took a workshop I participated in this activity and experienced first-hand how energizing and motivating it was to receive that letter with the reminders and encouragements I had written.

A recent experimental study has demonstrated what I’ve always believed:  that this activity is more than a “nice to do”.  Trainees in the study who participated in this type of activity had higher levels of self-efficacy (the belief that they could apply the skills they had learned) and they demonstrated application of their training.

Researchers Amanda Shantz and Gary Latham did a study on what they termed “written self-guidance”.  Half of their trainees who participated in a soft skills training program participated in a “letter to self” type of activity in which they reflected on what they had learned and how they planned to apply it.  Those who participated in the activity demonstrated significantly higher levels of application of the training than those participants who did not.  This activity is not the same as having participants write a reflection paper, develop an action plan, or write a class summary because it requires trainees to write motivational letters directed to the self, and the participants at a later point in time receive a letter written by themselves, to themselves.

Here are some specific guidelines for using this activity in training you facilitate, develop, or administer:

  • After a summary of the training content, ask participants to write a letter to themselves  – “Dear Self” – in which they outline their key learnings and how they plan to apply what they learned.
  • In the instructions, stress that they are the only ones who will see their letters – they will seal them before they leave the class.
  • Ask them not to pay attention to or be concerned about grammar or spelling.
  • Encourage participants to include self-affirming and comments that are relevant for them.  Provide examples.
  • As they finish, pass out blank mailing envelopes and ask them to write their full mailing address (interoffice, home address, etc.).
  • Allow approximately 15 minutes for this activity.  At the end of the time, collect the letters.
  • Store them safely (remember, they’re confidential) in your office and tickler your calendar to mail them in 3 weeks.   (The experiment used a 5 week interval but I’ve found that 3 weeks is better in today’s fast-paced work environments.)
  • Mail them at the appointed time.

This activity can be adapted for live virtual or elearning in the following way:

  • Ask participants to open their email system and type an email to themselves.  Use the same instructions as above.
  • Then ask them to save this email as a draft.
  • Mark your calendar, and 3 weeks later get in touch with each participant (email, text, etc.) and ask them to open their drafts folder and read their letter to themselves.

 

Until next time…

Barbara

 

Mindfulness to Make Training Stick

July 7, 2017 by

There is a lot of discussion these days about mindfulness at work and how it can help people do their jobs better.  Companies of all sizes are reporting positive results from mindfulness initiatives.  What is mindfulness anyway?  What are the benefits?  Can it help make learning stick? 

There are many definitions of mindfulness and they all involve “going within” to reflect on awareness, which in turn strengthens attention, thinking, memory, and emotion. 

Research studies show benefits of mindfulness in these areas related to job performance:

  • Attention.  Paying attention (not allowing the mind to wander) and directing attention to certain activities and away from others.  This makes for more efficient use of a person’s time and cognitive resources thinking.
  • Thinking.  Practicing mindfulness increases working memory (“cognitive capacity”), which is the short term memory we use to retrieve information especially when learning something new.  It also improves flexibility in thinking, allowing people to adapt knowledge to new situations.
  • Emotion.  Mindfulness practice speeds recovery from negative emotions, allowing for more objective appraisal of experiences.

One study of many large organizations reported a 25 percent increase in productivity, a 35 percent decrease in stress, and a 31 percent increase in collaboration skills. These benefits translate into more effective workplace relationships including supervisor-employee, leadership, and on teams.

Traits influenced by mindfulness can be learned, unlike most aspects of cognition and intelligence.  While there aren’t any research studies specifically on mindfulness and learning transfer, the links with learning and application of learning are clear.  Mindfulness training can help participants:

  • Pay attention to the learning, whether instructor-led, or self-paced.  This results in higher levels of learning and retention.
  • Learn concepts and skills better with fewer required drills and repeats needed.
  • Apply class learning to on-the-job experiences/needs/uses.

Here are some ideas for how mindfulness can be introduced in new or existing training to make it stick:

  • Incorporate mindfulness techniques into existing wellness classes:  yoga, meditation, martial arts.
  • Introduce a mindfulness series of stand-alone classes for developing mindfulness.  Experts suggest avoiding the “one shot” short classes as they are not likely to produce lasting behavior change.  Instead, the training should be shorter, about 60 minutes, 5-10 sessions, over several months.
  • Incorporate mindfulness techniques at various points in existing instructor-led or self-paced training on any topic:  at the beginning, during, and at the end of the training.
  • Include intermittent prompts or reminders in the training.  Examples of mindfulness prompts would be:  Take a moment and breathe deeply;  Stop for a moment and re-center yourself;  Am I paying attention to this training material?  Our Planning and Prompting Sticky Note has more information about intermittent prompts.
  • Outside of training, use technology such as email, IM, or text messages to remind employees to take a “minute of silence” or “breathing breaks” to reflect and go within.

The important thing to remember here is this approach will not appeal to everyone, but for those who begin using mindfulness practices can help make training stick better and have significant benefits for your organization.

 

 

Until next time…

Barbara

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Planning and Prompting to Make Training Stick

May 16, 2017 by

Independent learning such as self-paced e-learning courses are used more and more in today’s workplace.  When learning professionals don’t have direct contact with learners, how can we help to make their training stick?  Two techniques, when used together, can make a big impact:  planning, and self-regulating prompts.

Recent research has found that when participants are required to develop a pre-training plan for their self-paced online learning, that they are more likely to complete it and will learn more and better.  The plan should include when, where, and how much time the participant is going to devote to each module and how they are going to overcome barriers and distractions to their learning.  Note:  My Sticky Note on action plans provides ideas for post-training planning.

In addition to pre-training planning, a second technique called self-regulation prompts should also be used:  these prompts (pop-ups or screens inserted into learning modules) ask the learner to think about what they’re learning.  When these two techniques have been used together, research shows that participants learned more/better, and were less likely to discontinue participating in the learning.  While the research was conducted with self-paced e-learning, these techniques could also be applied to live virtual training and even face-to-face instructor-led training. 

Whether you are the course author, administrator, or manager, here’s what you need to do, for each 4 hours or module of training:

  • At the beginning of the course or in a pre-training email provide a messagethat says:  Research suggests that creating a plan enhances learning and assist people in completing training.  The primary reason people drop out is they lack the self-discipline necessary to succeed in online training.  The barriers to success that many people succumb to include failing to set aside enough time for training and completing the course in an environment full of distractions such as TV, email, colleagues, and family members.  Take a moment and develop a plan for how you can overcome these barriers.  It also may be helpful to provide a form for this.
  • Provide a deadline for trainees to complete the training.  Inform trainees the approximate time needed to complete each module.
  • For self-paced e-learning, provide a calendar and ask participants to select dates when they plan to log into the course, and for all modalities, ask them to think about how much time they plan to spend reviewing. 
  • Instruct participants that they need to have a quiet study environment free from distractions. Provide a check box or other form for participants to check the study environment they plan to use: home, work, library, friend’s house, coffee shop, metro/bus/train, or other.
  • In each learning module, insert 3 self-reflection questions at different points in the module:
    • Do I understand all of the key points of this training material? 
    • Am I concentrating on learning this training material? 
    • Are the study strategies I’m using helping me learning the training material? 

Note:  It’s important to do all of the above.  Asking participants to plan without also prompting them to reflect during the training has not been found to be effective.

Until next time…

Barbara

Learning Anxiety – and Making Training Stick

February 13, 2017 by
When someone finishes a training class they are usually prepared to begin using the skills they have acquired.  They have learned what they needed to learn.  But will they begin using the skills back on the job, especially if the new skill requires unlearning former behavior patterns in favor of new ones?

Edgar Schein, an author and consultant on change management points out that when a person is confronted with the prospect of learning something new, a “learning anxiety” is created.  The learner’s learning anxiety interferes with their applying the newly learned skill.  The list below contains some of the more common sources of learning anxiety, each with a suggestion or two for learning professionals to reduce or eliminate them (which Schein calls creating psychological safety).

  • Fear of temporary incompetence or punishment for incompetence.  Trainers should be sure to include ample time in class for practice or assign “homework” practice in between class sessions.  Also, trainers should make trainees’ managers aware of skills being taught and suggest allowing “safe practice” opportunities in the first days/weeks/months after training.  If this isn’t possible, suggest more frequent work reviews for awhile and/or tandem performance (two employees working together), to create a safe environment for using new skills.
  • Fear of loss of personal identity.  When people are asked to use behavior that is unlike their customary behavior, such as in communication, management, or customer service training, it is often hard for them to give up old behavior patterns.  Trainers can ease learners  into changes like this with lots of performance modeling – videos demonstrating the new skills, and role modeling – managers who use the skills visit the class (live or via video) and talk about their journey transitioning from the old behavior patterns to the new.  Post-training coaching is also helpful to assist the learner with modifying their personal identity to include the new skills.
  • Fear of loss of group membership.  Being “one of the gang” extends to “doing like the rest of the gang.”  If everyone in the department does something one way it will be harder for the newly trained team member to do it differently.  Trainers should consider training members of the same department at the same time or within a short time period of time.  It will also be helpful to have a discussion in the training about differences between what is being taught in class and how things are “really done” on the job.  Doing this provides an opportunity to talk about advantages of doing things according to the training.Schein points out that “survival anxiety” (desire to advance in one’s career, fear of being fired) interacts with learning anxiety to motivate the learner to make the change – or not.  The greater the survival anxiety, the easier it is to overcome learning anxiety.
  • Make a point of mentioning throughout the class or elearning module: how the skills being taught will help the participant build their resume, be valued more highly by management, advance to the next level, score well on their next review.   The beginning of class is typically when this is done, but it’s even more effective if sprinkled throughout the class.

It is up to those of us in the learning and development arena to help learners and their managers capitalize on survival anxiety and reduce learning anxiety!

Until next time…

Barbara

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Intention to Transfer – Will it Stick?

November 14, 2016 by

Many end-of-training evaluations ask participants to respond to a statement like this:  “I plan to (or will be able to) apply this training to my job”.   Have you ever wondered if this is an accurate prediction that the training will stick?  Technically this is referred to as intention to transfer.   

Several research studies have been conducted that compare intent to transfer with actual use of skills on the job.  In each case there was a fairly high connection between intention to transfer and the actual transfer.  But —

  • Don’t people often tell us what we want to hear (or what they think we want to hear)?
  • How many people have kept their new year’s resolutions?  (How many of us remember what they were?)
  • Aren’t people’s perceptions of their own behavior often different from what other people see?

The answer is yes, people often tell us what they think we want to hear but this “socially desirable response” (SDR) bias has really only been studied on personal habits such as healthy food choices and substance abuse.  There is no evidence that SDR plays a part in assessing workplace learning or intention to use it.  Yes, people’s perceptions of their own behavior are sometimes different from what others see, but just because learning doesn’t show up in observable behavior doesn’t mean it hasn’t stuck, particularly with leadership and soft skills training where behavior changes may be subtle, and observed only by one or two individuals.

So – is it useful at the end of the class to ask your trainees how they intend to use what they have just learned in training?  Definitely.  While a few people may not accurately indicate what they intend to do to apply what they have learned, multiple research studies have found that for the majority of trainees, particularly in soft skills training, those who report their intention to transfer specific skills, actually do it. 

In addition to asking about intent to use in end-of-class evaluations, here are some more ideas:

  • Incorporate it with an action planning activity.  (See this prior Sticky Note for a closer look at action planning and Making Training Stick®).  Have participants develop their action plan, then a reflection activity on intent to do it.
  • Email participants 2-3 weeks after training and ask:  “What have you done as a consequence of the training?”  and “….if you have not started yet, what do you intend to do?”  Note:  In one study, the trainer sent the follow-up email to each participant’s managing director, who then sent out the email.  They got a very high response rate.
  • Repeat the above email 6 weeks–3 months post-training.  Ask the same questions and compare the responses.
  • Large number of trainees?  Develop a short questionnaire with multiple choice responses – no more than 5-8 questions.  Each question would be a key learning point from the training, with response choices 1-5, and would have two parts:  to what extent are you using this skill/learning point?  If you haven’t use it yet, to what extent do you intend to use it?
  • If it’s not possible to “boil down” to 5-8 specific questions, send more than one questionnaire.  Just because the learning content is grouped into one learning event doesn’t mean the feedback and evaluation on it has to be.

Remember, when trainees tell you they intend to transfer what they have learned, they usually do it.  That’s pretty cool!

Until next time…

Barbara

Making Training Stick and Bloom’s Action Verbs

May 18, 2016 by

Action verbs can be a handy tool to help make your training stick.  I’ve discussed sticky objectives in a previous newsletter and in my white paper on transfer technologies.

As I suggest in these publications, “sticky objectives” should replace traditional instructional objectives for trainees and for their managers. Instructional objectives can be helpful for trainers to use for instructional design; however, before-training and beginning-of-training objectives should specify what the participant should know how to do and be able to do after training, in their job.  These “sticky objectives” signal to the participant what they should do with what they are learning.

 

Transforming instructional objectives into sticky objectives usually involves just a few subtle yet specific changes in wording.  The action verbs below which are linked with Bloom’s Taxonomy** application level can help to transform your instructional objectives into sticky objectives that your participants, their managers, and senior leaders see before, during, and after the training.  Naturally, the specific wording will depend on the skills/information being learned.

Start by taking each instructional objective for your training.  Delete “at the completion of this class” if this phrase or a similar one is there.  Replace it with “In your job” or “on the job”.  Then add an action verb from the list below, and complete the sentence with a description of the skill the participant should use on the job:

For example:  Upon  completion of this training   In your job, you should be able to identify the most appropriate leadership style for a particular employee and use it to obtain desired results.

Note: In some cases you may want to customize some objectives for particular groups of participants.  For example, in a management training program a group of supervisors on the shop floor may have slightly different objective(s) than a group of sales supervisors.

If you start with action verbs like these, the rest of the objective will usually fall into place.

Action Verbs based on Bloom’s Taxonomy application level

Apply

Calculate

Compute

Balance…..by…..

Demonstrate….by….

Determine….by…..

Decide

Employ…..to…..

Illustrate…..by…..

Identify…..and…..

Indicate

Measure…..with…..

Operate

Schedule

Solve…..by…..

Use…..to…..

Utilize…..to…..

Special thanks to Julie at the Association for Iowa Continuing Nursing Education Fall Conference for suggesting this topic.

Until Next Time…

          

**P.S. Where did Bloom’s Taxonomy come from?  In 1956 a team of faculty members at the University of Chicago under the leadership of Benjamin Bloom were seeking to help educators move beyond rote learning of facts.  They developed a taxonomy, or levels, of learning.  These levels of learning are frequently used in educational settings including workplace learning.  The levels are: knowledge (recall), comprehension (understand), application (use), analysis (analyze), and evaluate (judge or assess).  Bloom and his team also identified three domains of learning:  cognitive (thinking and evaluating), psychomotor (physical and perceptual), and affective (feelings and preferences, values).  For more information from a variety of sources, Google Bloom’s Taxonomy.