Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Making Training Stick by Getting Closer to the Trainee

March 13, 2019

When designing training, a learner-centered approach is recommended to improve the learning experience.  Along with a learner-centered approach, it is essential to know the characteristics of each trainee: cognitive ability, self-efficacy, motivation, emotional state, openness, extroversion, perceived usefulness, career goals and commitment to the organization (Training Transfer Process Model© in Making Learning Stick, 2010, pg. 8). Prior to developing training and during the design phase, facilitators should seek answers questions regarding each participant:

·     What is the trainee’s intellectual ability?

·     What are the trainee’s inner beliefs regarding his/her abilities?

·     What is the trainee’s inner motivation regarding the training?

·     Does the trainee have a positive attitude toward the upcoming training?

·     Is the trainee open to this new learning experience?

·     Is the trainee able to verbalize his/her thoughts and feelings?

·     Does the trainee perceive he/she needs to improve performance in this area on the job?

·     Will these skills be useful to the trainee on the job or at home?

·     Can the skills be immediately applied on the job or at home?

·     Does trainee have a personal career plan? Is the personal career plan updated regularly?

·     Does trainee identify with department or work unit?

·     Is there a relationship between identification with company units and the trainee’s desire to gain (and use) new knowledge?

It is imperative to gather as much information as possible regarding each individual trainee to create a more engaging learning experience, prior to the designing the training; this sometimes leads to higher levels of training transfer. So, what can facilitators do to get close with trainees or simply learn more about their individual characteristics prior to training?

1.   Form a partnership with the manger and the organization’s human resources department to help uncover certain organization culture and learner characteristics.

2.   Have participants write down what they expect to get out of the training.

3.   Boss Pre-Briefing (a meeting involving the trainer, trainee’s manager, and human resources representative)

4.   Conduct a person analysis to examine learner characteristics and competencies via interview, survey or another data collection tool.

5.   Use a technique to uncover the cognitive processes involved in performing a job or task such as Cognitive Task Analysis.

6.   Strategy Link: Connect the organization strategy to the specific training

7.   Create Training Buddies/Peer Learning and Support

8.   Include personalization and engagement in the training design.

9.   Uncover strategic requirements that support or inhibit learning.

10.Uncover environmental factors that support or inhibit learning.

Facilitators must be intentional on the specific data needed for each learning experience.   The tips provided can lead to better decisions regarding the content, delivery, and adaptability of the training to various learners.  More information on these and other evidence-based elements for effective learning and transfer are in Barbara Carnes’ book Making Learning Stick on Amazon.

Until next time…

Tammy Means & Barbara Carnes


Making Training Stick in 2019:  Tips for Facilitators to Start the New Year

January 22, 2019

For the past decade Dr. Barbara Carnes and the Make Training Stick® Team have provided workplace learning professionals practical tips and tools to promote training transfer (referred to as Techniques to Integrate Education – TIEs).

Thank You for continuing to be a part of the Make Training Stick® and Sticky Note Community.   Should you have any comments or suggestions, feel free to email

You’ve probably kicked off the new year with training calendar offerings, program roll-outs, designing, and revising.  As you refine goals for 2019, keep in mind the importance of Y-O-U (the facilitator/trainer) being dynamic in

  • Being Self-Aware (understanding and accepting ourselves but also setting and achieving goals to actualize our potential);
  • Creating partnerships within your organization (interpersonal and communication skills);
  • Adopting a Growth Mindset (learning new trends and the willingness to try new things).

Learning is a process and we (facilitators) need to make sure that learners “get it” by transferring the knowledge to the workplace.  The Training Transfer Process Model (Carnes, 2010), first introduced in Making Learning Stick includes categories involving (1) Learner Characteristics; (2) the Organizational Environment and Support (Before and After learning); (3) Training Design; and (4) Job Performance and Skill Maintenance (i.e., Training Transfer)

The Transfer of Technology-Supported Training Model represents a combination of factors supported by research on face-to-face training that can be applied to e-learning, and factors supported by research on the transfer of e-learning.  The Transfer of Technology-Supported Training Model contains categories in (1) Learning Content and Activities; (2) Work Environment; and (3) Trainee Characteristics.

May I suggest you add the following to your 2019 goals…

  1. Start a video or webinar series for managers and supervisors.  Use the time to share key learning points and training content with them.  Discuss 1-2 specific things they can do (to help practice what they learn.  Listen to their key challenges and goals.
  2. Include elements from the Training Transfer Process Model and Transfer of Technology-Supported Training Model.
  3. Choose one (or more) training or coaching programs and do a simple, 3 question level 3 evaluation. 
  4. Plan to read at least one new book and attend at least one workshop, presentation, or conference this year to help you “sharpen your saw”.  If you haven’t already, read Making Learning Stick, it is full of easy-to-use techniques to increase the transfer of your training.
  5. To stay abreast of trends in the Learning and Development field, listen to podcasts or join a social media group for facilitators. Trends to look out for in 2019 are Microlearning, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Training Transfer Technologies, and Learning Analytics.

Take action for better transfer of your training this year!

“We cannot become what we want to be by remaining what we are.” — Max DePree

Until next time…



Santa’s Elves Make Training Stick (December 2018)

December 6, 2018

2018 has been an eventful year for Santa, Mrs. Claus, the Elves, and the Reindeer with so much to learn in preparation for Christmas!  Rudolph and the reindeers have been busy training on newer, safer methods of transporting packages while the elves have been learning how to make brighter, more colorful toys and electronics for children across the world.

Santa promised to keep up with change and provide boys and girls the best, brightest, and most up to date toys, electronics, and gadgets every year.  But the toys the boys and girls started asking for had changed, especially those electronic toys.    The elves – and Rudolph – needed continuing education and learning throughout the year.  Instead of taking the elves off the production line, Rudolph decided to use e-learning.

But Santa’s goal to create brighter, more colorful toys and electronics may be at risk for this year’s Christmas. Chief Elf Bernard and the elves have been in the workshop trying to complete e-learning on creating toys for Christmas 2018. The elves have told Bernard they just simply don’t like the e-learning. They say it is impersonal and they can’t ask questions.  And the elves can’t focus on the e-learning because they’re distracted by their work machines and tools, emails, telephone calls, reindeer dropping in, and calendars full of meetings and other commitments.

•  Elf Bernard immediately set up computers away from the elves’ work areas (but still closeby) where they could focus on their learning.

•   Mrs. Claus came by with copies of Making Learning Stick, and Making eLearning Stick and offered to help.  She had used techniques from the books to learn how to make new cookie recipes.

•   Mrs. Claus showed Elf Bernard how to revise the eLearning content and curriculum using the Checklist for Better Training Transfer (Resource:  Making eLearning Stick, pg. 26).

•   She also showed him someTechniques to Integrate Education (TIEs) to reinforce the training and how to modify his e-learning  to integrate TIEs (Resources:   Making Learning Stick, chap. 2)

•   Elf Bernard decided to use these TIEs:

(1) Before Training:  Action Learning, Boss Briefing, and Training Buddies

(2) During Training: Mind Sweep, Strategy Link, Virtual Tutor, Threaded Discussion

(3) After Training: Action Plans, Boss Debriefing, and Use It or Lose It Checklist

The elves were happy with their new learning environment and most importantly, they are now hard at work making the latest and greatest toys and electronics for Santa to deliver to good little girls and boys everywhere on Christmas Day!

And everyone will live happily ever after – that is, until the next major change or shift in learning.

Happy Holidays from the Make Training Stick!® Team!

Until next time…

Making Training Stick with a Growth Mindset

October 24, 2018

Sticky Note

October 18, 2018

Mindsets can have a significant impact on learning transfer and application.  Some thought leaders have even termed “Mindset” as the new psychology of success.  A mindset is a form of Positive Psychology that involves an attitude that helps a person handle situations.  Facilitators and designers with a learning and application Mindset, a Make Training Stick Mindset, can influence participants expectations of learning as well as the learning and application itself.  Facilitators with this type of Mindset embrace challenges, persist in the face of setbacks, see effort as the path to mastery, learn from criticism, and find lessons and inspiration in others.  By modeling these behaviors, facilitators encourage participants to go on the journey of learning new content by helping them focus on the experience of learning and to increase willingness to try new things.  Facilitators can build a positive climate for learning and create a nurturing Mindset with trust, commitment, care, preparation, and effort.

Here are some suggestions to foster a Make Training Stick Mindset:

  • In the training design, facilitators should include learning goals, content relevance, practice and feedback, behavior modeling, error-based examples, and self-management strategies.
  • Before class, send “can do” encouraging messages with positive descriptors along with enrollment details, such as “as one of our talented employees, I know will find this training is thought-provoking. Plan positive “can do” messages during the training delivery.
  • Throughout the beginning of class, make an active effort to use positive descriptors for class members individually and/or as a group, using phrases such as “you are a bright group of trainees”…“brilliant idea”…”I can see we have a class of excellent performers.” This seems so simple but it can make a big impact.
  • Post positive written messages in electronic or face-to-face classrooms that describe a desired end result. These types of positive statements are also called Affirmations and can be used for work-related behavior change.  Affirmations are described in detail in the Making Training Stick Field Guide (on Amazon).
  • Consider sending a series of post-training emails with messages to reinforce a positive Mindset. Everyone gets a lot of emails these days but most people will be pleased to receive a positive, affirming note especially when it doesn’t require them to reply.

More information on these and other evidence-based elements for effective learning and transfer, are in Barbara Carnes’ book, Making Learning Stick (on Amazon).

Until next time…


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Planning and Prompting to Make Training Stick

May 16, 2017

Independent learning such as self-paced e-learning courses are used more and more in today’s workplace.  When learning professionals don’t have direct contact with learners, how can we help to make their training stick?  Two techniques, when used together, can make a big impact:  planning, and self-regulating prompts.

Recent research has found that when participants are required to develop a pre-training plan for their self-paced online learning, that they are more likely to complete it and will learn more and better.  The plan should include when, where, and how much time the participant is going to devote to each module and how they are going to overcome barriers and distractions to their learning.  Note:  My Sticky Note on action plans provides ideas for post-training planning.

In addition to pre-training planning, a second technique called self-regulation prompts should also be used:  these prompts (pop-ups or screens inserted into learning modules) ask the learner to think about what they’re learning.  When these two techniques have been used together, research shows that participants learned more/better, and were less likely to discontinue participating in the learning.  While the research was conducted with self-paced e-learning, these techniques could also be applied to live virtual training and even face-to-face instructor-led training. 

Whether you are the course author, administrator, or manager, here’s what you need to do, for each 4 hours or module of training:

  • At the beginning of the course or in a pre-training email provide a messagethat says:  Research suggests that creating a plan enhances learning and assist people in completing training.  The primary reason people drop out is they lack the self-discipline necessary to succeed in online training.  The barriers to success that many people succumb to include failing to set aside enough time for training and completing the course in an environment full of distractions such as TV, email, colleagues, and family members.  Take a moment and develop a plan for how you can overcome these barriers.  It also may be helpful to provide a form for this.
  • Provide a deadline for trainees to complete the training.  Inform trainees the approximate time needed to complete each module.
  • For self-paced e-learning, provide a calendar and ask participants to select dates when they plan to log into the course, and for all modalities, ask them to think about how much time they plan to spend reviewing. 
  • Instruct participants that they need to have a quiet study environment free from distractions. Provide a check box or other form for participants to check the study environment they plan to use: home, work, library, friend’s house, coffee shop, metro/bus/train, or other.
  • In each learning module, insert 3 self-reflection questions at different points in the module:
    • Do I understand all of the key points of this training material? 
    • Am I concentrating on learning this training material? 
    • Are the study strategies I’m using helping me learning the training material? 

Note:  It’s important to do all of the above.  Asking participants to plan without also prompting them to reflect during the training has not been found to be effective.

Until next time…


Learning Anxiety – and Making Training Stick

February 13, 2017
When someone finishes a training class they are usually prepared to begin using the skills they have acquired.  They have learned what they needed to learn.  But will they begin using the skills back on the job, especially if the new skill requires unlearning former behavior patterns in favor of new ones?

Edgar Schein, an author and consultant on change management points out that when a person is confronted with the prospect of learning something new, a “learning anxiety” is created.  The learner’s learning anxiety interferes with their applying the newly learned skill.  The list below contains some of the more common sources of learning anxiety, each with a suggestion or two for learning professionals to reduce or eliminate them (which Schein calls creating psychological safety).

  • Fear of temporary incompetence or punishment for incompetence.  Trainers should be sure to include ample time in class for practice or assign “homework” practice in between class sessions.  Also, trainers should make trainees’ managers aware of skills being taught and suggest allowing “safe practice” opportunities in the first days/weeks/months after training.  If this isn’t possible, suggest more frequent work reviews for awhile and/or tandem performance (two employees working together), to create a safe environment for using new skills.
  • Fear of loss of personal identity.  When people are asked to use behavior that is unlike their customary behavior, such as in communication, management, or customer service training, it is often hard for them to give up old behavior patterns.  Trainers can ease learners  into changes like this with lots of performance modeling – videos demonstrating the new skills, and role modeling – managers who use the skills visit the class (live or via video) and talk about their journey transitioning from the old behavior patterns to the new.  Post-training coaching is also helpful to assist the learner with modifying their personal identity to include the new skills.
  • Fear of loss of group membership.  Being “one of the gang” extends to “doing like the rest of the gang.”  If everyone in the department does something one way it will be harder for the newly trained team member to do it differently.  Trainers should consider training members of the same department at the same time or within a short time period of time.  It will also be helpful to have a discussion in the training about differences between what is being taught in class and how things are “really done” on the job.  Doing this provides an opportunity to talk about advantages of doing things according to the training.Schein points out that “survival anxiety” (desire to advance in one’s career, fear of being fired) interacts with learning anxiety to motivate the learner to make the change – or not.  The greater the survival anxiety, the easier it is to overcome learning anxiety.
  • Make a point of mentioning throughout the class or elearning module: how the skills being taught will help the participant build their resume, be valued more highly by management, advance to the next level, score well on their next review.   The beginning of class is typically when this is done, but it’s even more effective if sprinkled throughout the class.

It is up to those of us in the learning and development arena to help learners and their managers capitalize on survival anxiety and reduce learning anxiety!

Until next time…


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Intention to Transfer – Will it Stick?

November 14, 2016

Many end-of-training evaluations ask participants to respond to a statement like this:  “I plan to (or will be able to) apply this training to my job”.   Have you ever wondered if this is an accurate prediction that the training will stick?  Technically this is referred to as intention to transfer.   

Several research studies have been conducted that compare intent to transfer with actual use of skills on the job.  In each case there was a fairly high connection between intention to transfer and the actual transfer.  But —

  • Don’t people often tell us what we want to hear (or what they think we want to hear)?
  • How many people have kept their new year’s resolutions?  (How many of us remember what they were?)
  • Aren’t people’s perceptions of their own behavior often different from what other people see?

The answer is yes, people often tell us what they think we want to hear but this “socially desirable response” (SDR) bias has really only been studied on personal habits such as healthy food choices and substance abuse.  There is no evidence that SDR plays a part in assessing workplace learning or intention to use it.  Yes, people’s perceptions of their own behavior are sometimes different from what others see, but just because learning doesn’t show up in observable behavior doesn’t mean it hasn’t stuck, particularly with leadership and soft skills training where behavior changes may be subtle, and observed only by one or two individuals.

So – is it useful at the end of the class to ask your trainees how they intend to use what they have just learned in training?  Definitely.  While a few people may not accurately indicate what they intend to do to apply what they have learned, multiple research studies have found that for the majority of trainees, particularly in soft skills training, those who report their intention to transfer specific skills, actually do it. 

In addition to asking about intent to use in end-of-class evaluations, here are some more ideas:

  • Incorporate it with an action planning activity.  (See this prior Sticky Note for a closer look at action planning and Making Training Stick®).  Have participants develop their action plan, then a reflection activity on intent to do it.
  • Email participants 2-3 weeks after training and ask:  “What have you done as a consequence of the training?”  and “….if you have not started yet, what do you intend to do?”  Note:  In one study, the trainer sent the follow-up email to each participant’s managing director, who then sent out the email.  They got a very high response rate.
  • Repeat the above email 6 weeks–3 months post-training.  Ask the same questions and compare the responses.
  • Large number of trainees?  Develop a short questionnaire with multiple choice responses – no more than 5-8 questions.  Each question would be a key learning point from the training, with response choices 1-5, and would have two parts:  to what extent are you using this skill/learning point?  If you haven’t use it yet, to what extent do you intend to use it?
  • If it’s not possible to “boil down” to 5-8 specific questions, send more than one questionnaire.  Just because the learning content is grouped into one learning event doesn’t mean the feedback and evaluation on it has to be.

Remember, when trainees tell you they intend to transfer what they have learned, they usually do it.  That’s pretty cool!

Until next time…


Trump University and Making Training Stick

March 10, 2016

Donald Trump’s Trump University has been in the news lately.  Allegations are that while the organization purported to be an educational institution providing “real estate secrets” from Donald Trump, in reality it was a sales organization focused on selling products and services.   Several lawsuits are pending, and Trump’s political opponents point out that statements and claims by Trump himself about the “university” have proven to be false.  Human resource development professionals take note:  this seems to be simply a politically charged, high profile example of level 1 vs level 3 evaluation.  They liked it, but could and did they use it?

Trump claims, according to a November 2015 article in Time magazine, that 98% of the students who took the $1500 real estate course gave it “rave ratings.”  He has copies of the end-of-class surveys students completed to back up claims that students believed they got something of value in the classes.  Attorneys for the plaintiffs, that is, students who took the class and are now suing, state that the survey results were not credible because they were not anonymous and were completed at the end of the class — level 1, in Kirkpatrick terminology.  Trump’s lawyers have pointed out that many of the students filled out favorable end-of-class questionnaires and later “changed their minds”.  They changed their minds about the value of the class when they tried to apply what was taught – level 3.

While most learning evaluations are not as high-profile as this one, it provides an opportunity to pause and take note:

  • Do you conduct level 1 end-of-class evaluations of all classes?  If you, as 97% of workplace learning professionals do, do you use them to guage the success of the class?  How is learning success defined in your organization?  Sandra Merwin, noted workplace learning consultant and now artist, did some research years ago that found a negative correlation between level 1 “likes” and level 3 “applies”.  In other words, individuals who at the end of class did not give high “like” marks to a class at the end were more likely to apply what they learned.  And those who did give high “like” scores after training were less likely to apply it.  The explanation might be that when prior knowledge is challenged, it sets up an uncomfortable creative tension.  Just one study, but something to think about.
  • Consider surveying participants and perhaps their managers three months post-training to see how they’re applying what they learned. Doing this will likely provide more value than end-of-class, level 1 evaluations.   My Sticky Note Easy Level 3 Evaluation provides useful tips for doing this.
  • For completed classes with level 1 evaluation data available, conduct a level 3 evaluation and compare the results.  Some LMSs can provide graphic comparisons.  You may be surprised, pleasantly or otherwise. 
  • Add post-class reinforcement to increase application of what has been learned.  Recent transfer technologies make doing this less time-consuming and easier for learners.  For an overview of available technologies, see my Training Transfer Technologies white paper.  My books Making Learning Stick and Making Elearning Stick provide evidence-based, easy-to-use techniques for both before and after learning events to increase application of learning.

While most learning evaluations don’t capture media attention the way Trump University has, the recent publicity provides a helpful reminder that our end goal in workplace learning is not for participants to like the training but for them to use it, to make the training stick.



Until Next Time…


Multitasking and Making Training Stick

October 20, 2015

Multitasking is rampant today – almost everyone does it at one time or another.  I attended a workshop recently and soon after it began I noticed that at least one-third of the 100ish participants were tapping away on laptops, tablets and/or phones (yes, a few were using more than one device).  I got up and peeked around.  No one seemed to be taking notes on the lecture.  They were reading and responding to emails or texts, posting on social media, and/or surfing the internet.

Is multitasking bad?  Does it interfere with learning and retention?  In study after study, test scores for people who multitasked in learning environments were significantly lower than for those who did not, or if scores were comparable, the multitaskers required considerably more time to achieve the same learning outcomes.  One study found that people who sat close to multitaskers in the classroom had lower levels of learning even though they themselves weren’t doing it.  Even worse, in one study multitaskers who performed poorly on a learning assessment believed they performed as well as their non-multitasking peers.   

What’s a trainer to do?  Neuroscientists tell us that most people’s maximum attention span is about 20 minutes.  As attention begins to drift the temptation to multitask increases, and the digital device(s) beckon.

A trainer can and should vary the activities every 20 minutes:  small group discussions, Q&A, application exercises, a video, and inward reflection activities are popular choices.

Most trainers ask participants to turn off phones at the beginning of training and to close out all unnecessary websites.  E-learning designers should consider adding a slide with this message at the beginning of each online module.

Consider also these strategies based on current neuroscience research to reduce participants’ tendency to multitask:

  • Tests and quizzes.  Whether printed or on a slide, response required or rhetorical, studies show that when people are tested on material, especially if they know they will be tested, they have higher levels of learning and retention.  Flash a few quiz questions on the screen or pass out a written quiz.  Quiz features in most e-learning software makes this a snap.  Be sure to make the test reasonably challenging and base it on the learning objectives.

Let participants know in advance they will be tested, or give a “pop quiz” without advance notice.  People will soon figure out they are going to be tested periodically.  Motivation to learn increases if testing results are recorded which makes the participant personally accountable.

Tests and quizzes need not be confined to the learning module.  Require completing an after-class test as a condition for class credit.  Or use a training transfer technology tool to deliver one question at a time.  The newest revision of my Training Training Technology white paper has an overview of the latest tools.

  • Flip the classroom.  Do you really need to deliver the content via lecture?  All of it?  The temptation to multitask is most compelling during lectures.   Consider instead:  an online module, pre-reading, and/orvideo viewing ahead of time followed by in-class discussion, practice, and application.  Of course a typical issue with pre-work is that some participants come to class without having done it.  Guard against this after the first time by giving a test at the beginning of class or starting class with small group discussionthat draws on the pre-work content.  Ask those who did not do well to spend their first break reviewing the material.  (Have a few extra laptops and/or tablets available if needed.)
  • Chunk content into smaller segments of 15-20 minutes. Obviously this will not work for every class especially if participants travel to get there, but when possible, shorter training chunks (think stand-up meeting or short online module) mean participants will pay better attention and therefore they will learn more in less time.
  • Tell participants about the research on multitasking and learning.  Ask them to consider how they and the organization will benefit when they achieve the outcomes of the class, and how their multitasking might interfere with their learning goals.
  • Use available tools on the technology platform. For virtual instructor-led classes, be sure to use the tools available such as raising hands. Prepare a question or two to ask an individual when the system notifies you that a participant is inattentive or has navigated to another screen.   For self-paced e-learning, review key metrics such as time on slide and navigation and consider ways to shorten/revise the content.

These strategies probably won’t completely eliminate multitasking during training but chances are that the more of them you use, you will reduce it.

Until next time…


Big Bang’s Sheldon Shows Us How Not to Teach

August 11, 2015

I enjoy the TV sitcom Big Bang Theory.  Apparently a lot of other people do too because reruns seem to appear often – on several channels in different time slots.  Recently I saw a segment where Sheldon teaches – or tries to teach – Penny physics.  His teaching is a great example of how not to engage a learner as well as many other mistakes some instructors make.

The six minute version on YouTube provides an opportunity to apply the before-during-after time periods related to transfer and also to apply some of my Training Transfer Process model.

Click here to watch the exerpt of the episode.  While you’re watching I hope you’ll think about what Sheldon should have done differently and what he could have done before and after the session with Penny that might have helped her apply her learning.  Also think about your own teaching/training…. I know I recognized a few things that I have to watch and keep myself from doing!

When you’ve finished viewing, read my comments below the clip about how Sheldon could’ve applied aspects of my Training Transfer Process.



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